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Classification of recombination-active defects in multicrystalline solar cells made from upgraded metallurgical grade (UMG) silicon

: Lausch, D.; Bakowskie, R.; Lorenz, M.; Schweizer, S.; Petter, K.; Hagendorf, C.


Jantsch, W.:
Gettering and defect engineering in semiconductor technology XIV : Selected papers from the XIVth International Biannual Meeting on Gettering and Defect Engineering in Semiconductor, (GADEST2011), September 25 - 30, 2011, Loipersdorf (Fürstenfeld), Austria
Dürnten: Trans Tech Publications, 2011 (Solid state phenomena 178/179)
ISBN: 978-3-03-785232-3
International Biannual Meeting on Gettering and Defect Engineering in Semiconductor Technology (GADEST) <14, 2011, Loipersdorf>
Fraunhofer CSP ()

In this contribution a classification of recombination active defects in multicrystalline silicon solar cells made from electronic grade (eg) and upgraded metallurgical grade (umg) silicon feedstock is introduced. On a macroscopic scale the classification is performed by using forward and reverse biased electroluminescence imaging (EL / ReBEL) and imaging of sub-band defect luminescence (ELsub). The luminescence behavior due to structural defects already present in the wafer can be divided into two groups based on their recombination and prebreakdown behavior. As a first step towards a more detailed analysis of the cause for these differences, the classification was also performed on microscopic scale. For this ReBEL and ELsub was performed under an optical microscope (ReBEL/ELsub) and EL was correlated to Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC) in an electron microscope. All defect types observed on a macroscopic scale were observed on a microscopic scale; however, a thir d defect type had to be introduced. Finally, we propose a qualitative model for the different classified types of recombination active defect structures that can explain the observed recombination and prebreakdown behavior.