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Flammability of layered silicate epoxy nanocomposites combined with low-melting inorganic ceepree glass
|Polymer Engineering and Science 52 (2012), Nr.3, S.507-517|
|Fraunhofer IFAM ()|
Tetraphenylphosphonium modified layered silicate epoxy nanocomposite (EP/TPPMMT) combined with low-melting silicate glass, Ceepree (CP) is investigated by thermal analysis, flammability tests and cone calorimeter at different heat fluxes. Adding CP and TPPMMT does not change the pyrolysis apart from increasing inorganic residue. The total heat evolved (THE) is changed insignificantly, as neither relevant additional carbonaceous charring nor flame inhibition occurs. However, flame retardancy is clearly observed due to an inorganic-carbonaceous surface protection layer. The peak heat released rate (PHRR) is reduced by around 32-42% when 5 wt% TPPMMT is added, and 51-63% when 10 wt% CP is added. PHRR reduction less than expected is observed when both additives are combined. The reduction is greater than that achieved by using TPPMMT but less than when only CP is used. The morphology of fire residue is investigated by scanning electron microscope on different length scales and turnsout to be the key to understanding the efficiency of flame retardancy. The fire residue of EP/CP shows a layered structure, whereas separated columns limit the barrier properties for EP/5%TPPMMT on the micrometer scale. Columns dominating the fire residue structure of EP/5%TPPMMT/10%CP deteriorate the fire retardancy, whereas a more integral structure at the top of the residue causes the improvement over EP/5%TPPMMT.