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Biomasse. Analyse und Bewertung der Nutzung von Biogas. Teil 2: Herstellung, Aufbereitung und Einspeisung in Erdgasnetze

Biomass. Analysis and evaluation of the use of biogas - 2. Manufacture, treatment, and feeding into the natural gas grid
: Urban, W.; Ramesohl, S.; Burmeister, F.; Scholwin, F.; Hofmann, F.

BWK. Das Energie-Fachmagazin 58 (2006), Nr.5, S.63-68
ISSN: 0006-9612
ISSN: 1618-193X
Fraunhofer UMSICHT Oberhausen ()

In Part 1 of this survey (BWK 3/2006) the potential, techniques, costs, and climate protection aspects of biogas use were presented. Part 2 relates to the obtaining of bio-methane from wood gasification, the preparation and feeding the biogas and the requirements and restrictions of the feeding into the German natural gas grid. The discussion covers introduction; manufacture of bio-methane; preparation and feeding fermentable biogases (pressurized water scrubbing; pressure swing adsorption; biogas desulfurization; gas drying, compression; and feeding); costs of biogas generation, preparation, and feeding; gas grid capacity and technically usable biogas potential; and summing up. The gasification of wood-containing biomass with associated cleaning, preparation, and feeding of the product gas offers a cost effective and technically interesting prospect that can compete with other options of wood use including the often considered biomass to liquids track. Because of the s omewhat low technological treatment expense it is to be expected that the methanation option already at smaller facilities operates more economically than the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in the biomass-to-liquid approach, increasing the conversion opportunities. Synthesis gas methanation is still in the R&D phase. Analogous to the biomass-to-liquid option, large scale use is not to be considered before 2015. However, there are no recognizable basic problems. The processes of biogas treatment (fermentation) are mature and marketable. The requirements of gas quality are complied with so that feeding bio-methane is not a problem technically. The economicalness of biogas use depends on the facility size and base costs. The main gasification methods are fluidized bed, fixed bed, and entrained flow gasifier. The use of wood gas as natural gas replacement and the associated requirements determine the type and extent of the required gas cleaning and treatment.