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Simulation of laser beam reflection at the sea surface

: Schwenger, Frederic; Repasi, Endre


Holst, G.C. ; Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers -SPIE-, Bellingham/Wash.:
Infrared imaging systems: Design, analysis, modeling, and testing XXII : 26 - 28 April 2011, Orlando, Florida, United States
Bellingham, WA: SPIE, 2011 (Proceedings of SPIE 8014)
ISBN: 978-0-8194-8588-5
Paper 80140R, 12 S.
Conference "Infrared Imaging Systems - Design, Analysis, Modeling, and Testing" <22, 2011, Orlando/Fla.>
Defense, Security and Sensing Symposium <2011, Orlando/Fla.>
Fraunhofer IOSB ()
computer simulation of sea surface; reflection of a Gaussian laser beam at the sea surface; sea surface BRDF; radiance calculation in SWIR

A 3D simulation of the reflection of a Gaussian shaped laser beam on the dynamic sea surface is presented. The simulation is suitable for both the calculation of images of SWIR (short wave infrared) imaging sensor and for determination of total detected power of reflected laser light for a bistatic configuration of laser source and receiver at different atmospheric conditions.
Our computer simulation comprises the 3D simulation of a maritime scene (open sea/clear sky) and the simulation of laser light reflected at the sea surface. The basic sea surface geometry is modeled by a composition of smooth wind driven gravity waves. The propagation model for water waves is applied for sea surface animation. To predict the view of a camera in the spectral band SWIR the sea surface radiance must be calculated. This is done by considering the emitted sea surface radiance and the reflected sky radiance, calculated by MODTRAN. Additionally, the radiances of analytical statistical sea surface BRDF (bidirectional reflectance distribution function). This BRDF model considers the statistical slope statistics of waves and accounts for slope-shadowing of waves that especially occurs at flat incident angles of the laser beam and near horizontal detection angles of reflected irradiance at rough seas. Simulation results are presented showing the variation of the detected laser power dependent on the geometric configuration of laser, sensor and wind characteristics.