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Influence of the indium tin oxide/organic interface on open-circuit voltage, recombination, and cell degradation in organic small-molecule solar cells

: Schäfer, S.; Petersen, A.; Wagner, T.A.; Kniprath, R.; Lingenfelser, D.; Zen, A.; Kirchartz, T.; Zimmermann, B.; Würfel, U.; Feng, X.; Mayer, T.

Volltext urn:nbn:de:0011-n-1812066 (676 KByte PDF)
MD5 Fingerprint: 761d36a870f7daea6ae7e8775ad73ebb
Erstellt am: 24.5.2013

Physical Review. B 83 (2011), Nr.16, Art. 165311, 13 S.
ISSN: 0163-1829
ISSN: 1098-0121
ISSN: 0556-2805
Zeitschriftenaufsatz, Elektronische Publikation
Fraunhofer ISE ()
Solarzellen - Entwicklung und Charakterisierung; Farbstoff; Organische und Neuartige Solarzellen; Alternative Photovoltaik-Technologien; Organische Solarzellen; Farbstoff und Organische Solarzellen

In this paper we investigate the performance and stability of small-molecule organic solar cells with respect to the indium tin oxide (ITO)/organic interface. Different zinc-phthalocyanine (ZnPc)/fullerene (C-60) cell architectures with and without ITO O-2-plasma treatment are compared and tested with respect to their degradation behavior under illumination in inert atmosphere. Photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS and XPS) shows that the O-2-plasma treatment increases the ITO work function from 4.3 eV up to 5.6 eV. We find that both the increased ITO work function as well as the introduction of an electron blocking layer between ITO and the mixed donor/acceptor layer increases the open-circuit voltage V-oc by more than 200 mV. For both cases our continuum approach device simulation quantitatively relates the increase of V-oc to a reduced contact recombination and thus a reduced dark current. For cells built on ozone treated ITO we find a fast cell degradation caused by the UV part of the AM 1.5 spectrum. We identify the degradation, which manifests itself in a decrease of V-oc of up to 25%, as a partial reversion of the plasma induced ITO work function increase. Additionally, we demonstrate that the degradation can be reduced by structural changes in the cell architecture, leading to improved cell stability. We present a comprehensive study of the recombination at the ITO/organic interface and its influence on the open-circuit voltage and the cell stability.