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Music score watermarking by clef modifications

: Schmucker, M.; Yan, H.


Delp, E.J. ; Society for Imaging Science and Technology -IS&T-; Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers -SPIE-, Bellingham/Wash.:
Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents V : 21 - 24 January 2003, Santa Clara, California, USA, proceedings of Electronic Imaging, Science and Technology 2003
Bellingham/Wash.: SPIE, 2003 (SPIE Proceedings Series 5020)
ISBN: 0-8194-4820-6
Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents Conference <5, 2003, Santa Clara/Calif.>
Fraunhofer IGD ()
clef; morphological operations; music score; watermarking

In this paper we present a new method for hiding data in music scores. In contrast to previous published algorithms we investigate the possibilities of embedding information in clefs. Using the clef as information carrier has two advantages: First, a clef is present in each staff line which guarantees a fixed capacity. Second, the clef defines the reference system for musical symbols and music containing symbols, e.g. the notes and the rests, are not degraded by manipulations.
Music scores must be robust against greyscale to binary conversion. As a consequence, the information is embedded by modifying the black and white distribution of pixels in certain areas. We evaluate simple image processing mechanisms based on erosion and dilation for embedding the information. For retrieving the watermark the b/w-distribution is extracted from the given clef. To solve the synchronization problem the watermarked clef is normalized in a pre-processing step. The normalization is based on moments. The areas used for watermarking are calculated by image segmentation techniques which consider the features of a clef. We analyze capacity and robustness of the proposed method using different parameters for our proposed method. This proposed method can be combined with other music score watermarking methods to increase the capacity of existing watermarking techniques.