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Water diffusion in micro- and nano-particle filled encapsulants

: Braun, T.; Georgi, L.; Bauer, J.; Koch, M.; Becker, K.-F.; Bader, V.; Aschenbrenner, R.; Reichl, H.


Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers -IEEE-; VDE/VDI-Gesellschaft Mikroelektronik, Mikro- und Feinwerktechnik -GMM-:
3rd Electronics System Integration Technology Conference, ESTC 2010. Proceedings. Vol.2 : Berlin, Germany, 13 - 16 September 2010
New York, NY: IEEE, 2010
ISBN: 978-1-4244-8553-6
ISBN: 978-1-4244-8554-3
Electronics System Integration Technology Conference (ESTC) <3, 2010, Berlin>
Fraunhofer IZM ()

Polymer materials - mainly epoxy resins - are widely used in microelectronics packaging. They are established in printed circuit board manufacturing, for adhesives as die attach glues or for encapsulants as molding compounds, glob tops or underfill materials. Low cost and mass production capabilities are the main advantages of these materials. But like all polymers they cannot provide a hermetical sealing due to their permeability properties. The susceptibility to water diffusion through the polymer and along the interfaces is a drawback for polymer materials in general, as water inside a microelectronic package might lead to softening of the material and to a decreasing adhesive strength and resulting delaminations close to solder bumps or wire bonds reducing package reliability by decreasing the package structural integrity. During package reflow, the incorporated humidity might lead to popcorning, i.e. abrupt evaporation of humidity during reflow soldering. This effe ct is one major problem during plastic package assembly. The introduction of high temperature lead-free soldering processes has even increased this issue. Therefore, plastic packaging materials with enhanced humidity resistance would increase package reliability during assembly and lifetime ideally without cost increase and with no changes in processing. As filler particles have an important influence on the final material properties of microelectronic encapsulants, they are well suited for material modifications. Typically micro-sized silica particles are incorporated into the polymer matrix as the thermo-mechanical properties could be well adapted to reliable packaging demands. However, there are a lot of nano- and micro-sized filler particles with potential to enhance the humidity barrier properties of encapsulants. Working principles of these particles may range from large surface impact of nano-particles, barrier functionality due to stacked layer formation (nano-clays), highly hydrophobic part