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Enzyme stabilization in nanostructured materials for use in organophosphorus nerve agents detoxification and prophylaxis

: Kernchen, R.


Mikhalovsky, S.:
Biodefence. Advanced Materials and Methods for Health Protection
New York: Springer Science+Business Meda, 2011 (NATO Science for Peace and Security. Series A, Chemistry and Biology)
ISBN: 978-94-007-0219-6
Aufsatz in Buch
Fraunhofer INT ()
enzymatic decontamination; chemical warfare; chemical weapon; organophosphorus agent; nanotechnology; enzyme stabilization

Enzyme immobilization and encapsulation in various nanostructures has drawn great interest as it offers both increased stability and reusability with-out significant loss in activity. Although we are still at the beginning of ex-ploring the use of these materials for biocatalysis, by now several nanostruc-tures have been tested as hosts for enzyme immobilization. The beneficial application of enzyme stabilization in nanostructured materials for use in nerve agent detoxification and pre-treatment is reviewed and discussed in this article. Organophosphorus hydrolyzing enzymes (e.g. OPAA, OPH, Paraoxonase) are capable of detoxifying neurotoxic chemical warfare (CW) agents, i.e. G-type, V-type, and related organophosphorus (OP)-based indus-trial materials. The nanoencapsulation of OP-hydrolyzing enzymes with mesoporous materials or dendritic polymers can provide a very stable and convenient formulation for use in chemical agent detoxification. Nanoencap-sulated enzymes demonstrated to be able to retain its activity in the presence of a number of organic solvents, commercial disinfectants and anti-microbial agents and foams, making them suitable for personnel decontamination and individual protection applications. OP-hydrolyzing enzymes also show great promise as catalytic bioscavengers to be used as safe and effective medical countermeasures to OP intoxication. Novel enzyme-complexed nano-delivery systems, particularly polymeric nanocapsules and sterically stabilized lipo-somes, can be used to carry these metabolizing enzymes to the circulation. Thus, it is possible to avoid the physiological disposition and potential immu-nological reactions of respective enzymes. Nanostructured delivery systems consequently allow for increasing the enzymes efficacy by extending their cir-culatory life and in some cases also their specific activity.