Hier finden Sie wissenschaftliche Publikationen aus den Fraunhofer-Instituten.

Large area PLD of nanometer-multilayers

: Dietsch, R.; Holz, T.; Weißbach, D.; Scholz, R.


Applied surface science 197-198 (2002), S.169-174
ISSN: 0169-4332
Fraunhofer IWS ()

The deposition of nanometer-multilayer on technical relevant substrates, use as X-ray optics, makes extreme demands on the deposition process concerning precision, reproducibility and long-term stability. Across a stack of more than 150 layers with single layer thicknesses in the range between 1 and 10 nm, a variation of single layer thickness considerably lower than D=0.1 nm and an interface roughness below D=0.25 nm have to be realized. Thickness homogeneity d/d < 1% and lateral thickness gradients d/x = 10-8 have to be guaranteed across macroscopic substrate dimensions. Magnetron sputtering and e-beam evaporation are well-established deposition techniques to fabricate X-ray optical multilayers. For particular material combinations and for tailored thickness profiles. PLD has become an interesting alternative to these predominant technologies. Within the last years the established 4 in. large area PLD technology of X-ray optical metal/carbon and carbon/carbon multilayers has b een up-scaled to the deposition of substrates up to 6 in. diameter. An improvement of long-term stability, which is necessary due to the increased substrate dimensions, is achieved by the modified target geometry and an increase in the accuracy of target and substrate positions in the range below 0.1 mm. Metal/carbon, metal/B4C, carbon/carbon X-ray optics both with homogeneous thickness distribution and with tailored thickness gradients can be deposited on 6 in. substrate length, a layer by layer reproducibility of D<0.01 nm and a run-to-run stability d<0.05 nm are achieved. As a result of the realized precision, Ni/C gradient multilayers, used as Göbel-Mirrors in X-ray analysis, can be deposited both on flat and on pre-curved substrates.