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Multi-phase-level diffractive elements realized by binary effective medium patterns

: Freese, W.; Kämpfe, T.; Kley, E.-B.; Tünnermann, A.


Schoenfeld, W.V. ; Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers -SPIE-, Bellingham/Wash.:
Advanced fabrication technologies for micro/nano optics and photonics III : 25 - 27 January 2010, San Francisco, California, United States; SPIE Photonics West
Bellingham, WA: SPIE, 2010 (Proceedings of SPIE 7591)
ISBN: 978-0-8194-7987-7
Paper 75910Z
Conference "Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics" <3, 2010, San Francisco/Calif.>
Photonics West Conference <2010, San Franciso/Calif.>
Fraunhofer IOF ()
binary subwavelength structures; multilevel computer-generated holograms; diffractive optics

Subwavelength structures open up the possibility to create an artificial index material which enables the realization of high-efficient diffractive structures. This can be used to generate optical elements with nearly arbitrary phase profiles. We demonstrate the realization of computer-generated holograms based on this effective medium approach. High diffraction efficiencies can be realized by multi-phase-level modulation based on two-dimensional binary nanostructures. The fabrication is performed by one lithographical step using a high-speed e-beam writer which allows high-resolution patterning even on large areas. A diffractive element in the visible range is experimentally demonstrated using the presented effective index approach.