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Underlying issues including approaches and information needs in risk assessment
Risk assessment requires a delicate consideration of the factors modifying exposure and effects. In this contribution a review is given of the qualitative and quantitative information needs that are essential for a proper risk assessment. The focus is on the details of metal exposure and exposure assessment, following the themes of environmental, physicochemical, and biological components that define exposure. Apart from a description of the principle processes and pathways, exposure assessment is placed in the context of risk assessment and its use in policy and regulatory decision making.