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Characterization of methane emissions from rice fields in Asia. III. Mitigation options and future research needs

: Wassmann, R.; Lantin, R.S.; Neue, H.U.; Buendia, L.V.; Corton, T.M.; Lu, Y.


Nutrient cycling in agroecosystems 58 (2000), Nr.1/3, S.23-36
ISSN: 1385-1314
Fraunhofer IFU; 2002 in Helmholtz-Gesellschaft integriert
irrigated; rainfed; deepwater; irrigated pattern; compost; biogas residual; direct wet seeding; ammonium sulfate; straw management

Methane (CH sub 4) emissions from rice fields were determined using automated measurement systems in China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines. Mitigation options were assessed separately for different baseline practices of irrigated rice, rainfed, and deepwater rice. Irrigated rice is the largest source of CH sub 4 and also offers the most options to modify crop management for reducing these emissions. Optimizing irrigation patterns by additional drainage periods in the field or an early timing of midseason drainage accounted for 7 - 80 % of CH sub 4 emissions of the respective baseline practice. In baseline practices with high organic amendments, use of compost (58 - 63 %), biogas residues (10 - 16 %), and direct wet seeding (16 - 22 %) should be considered mitigation options. In baseline practices using prilled urea as sole N source, use of ammonium sulfate could reduce CH sub 4 emission by 10 - 67 %. In all rice ecosystems, CH sub 4 emissions can be reduced b fallow incorporation (11 %) and mulching (11 %) of rice straw as well as addition of phosphogypsum (9 - 73 %). However, in rainfed and deepwater rice, mitigation options are very limited in both number and potential gains. The assessment of these crop management options includes their total factor productivity and possible adverse effects. Due to higher nitrous oxide (N sub 2 O) emissions, changes in water regime are only recommended for rice systems with high baseline emissions of CH sub 4. Key objectives of future research are identifying and characterizing high-emitting rice systems, developing site-specific technology packages, ascertaining synergies with productivity, and accounting for N sub 2 O emissions.