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Carcinogenicity of cadmium - overview of experimental and epidemiological results and their influence on recommendations for maximum concentrations in the occupational area

: Heinrich, U.

Environmental Toxin Series. Vol.2
Berlin/West: Springer, 1988
ISBN: 3-540-15551-1
IUPAC Cadmium Workshop <3, 1985, Jülich>
Conference Paper
Fraunhofer ITA ( ITEM) ()
animal; cadmium; carcinogenicity; exposure; human; Inhalation; lung; lunge; Maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentration; maximum concentration; neoplasms; Respirationstrakt; respiratory tract; Tier; tumor

Carcinogenicity tests involving the respiratory tract or, predominantly, the lungs as primary target organs were not performed before 1982. Epidemiological studies of cancer mortality among cadmium exposed workers published before 1982 indicated that cancer of the prostate might be related to the cadmium exposure. In subsequent epidemiological evaluations published 1983 and 1985 this suspicion could not be further substantiated but, some of the new data revealed rather conclusively that the lung cancer risk might be higher after cadmium exposure. Also, in 1983 the results of a long-term inhalation study using CdCl2 showed a dose dependent increase of the lung cancer incidence rate in rats. Maximum allowable concentrations of cadmium were recommended in various countries for the occupational area. The impact of the experimental and epidemiological results available before and after 1982 on the recommended workplace concentrations are reported. Even yet in 1984 the recommendations in the various countries comprise a wide range of permissible concentrations starting from zero, that means no value is given because cadmium is regarded as a potential human carcinogen after inhalation (FRG) and ending up with 600 myg/cbm as a short term exposure limit (USA).