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Grundwassergefährdungspotential von Baustoffen. Beitrag zur TA-Studie "Grundwasserschutz und Wasserversorgung". Untersuchungsbereich "Bauindustrie und Baugewerbe"

: Hiessl, H.; Hillenbrand, T.
: Fraunhofer-Institut für Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung -ISI-, Karlsruhe

Karlsruhe: ISI, 1992, 250 pp.
Fraunhofer ISI ()
Anstrichmittel; Baustoff; Betonzusatzmittel; building material; Entschalungsmittel; Geotextilie; Grundwassergefährdungspotential; Holzschutzmittel; Injektionsmittel; Kunststoffdichtungsbahn; Lack; Lebenszyklus(Bauwerk); potential ground water pollution; life cycle of structure

The objective of the research project was to estimate the potential of building materials to cause ground water pollution during the different phases of the life cycle of a building structure (construction phase, operational use-phase, post-use phase). After a short introduction into the ecology of ground water systems and their vulnerability through contaminants, the report gives an account of the specific conditions under which selected building materials (i. a. concrete additives, mould oils, various injection (grouting) materials, geotextiles and -membranes (geosynthetics), wood preservatives, enamels and paints) are applied, what the major constituents and components of the materials are with respect to water contamination and how the materials behave when exposed to eluative environmental stresses. Theoretical and practical aspects of the assessment of the ground water pollution potentials are discussed. Although there is a definite potential of certain building materials to adversely influence ground water ecology, it was not possible to provide a quantitative assessment. The major impediments for a quantitative assessment are: 1. unavailability of information from the manufacturers of the building materials concerning the concentrations of relevant compounds and additives; 2. lack of quantitative knowledge about the major processes involved in the eluation of the pollutants from the building materials during the various phases of the life cycle of a building structure; 3. lack of quantitative knowledge about transport and transformation processes of the pollutants in the subsurface environment; 4. lack of knowledge about the cause-effects relationships of the pollutants on subterranean ecosystems. Various technical as well as organizational and administrative measures are proposed to fill the information deficits. Further it was concluded that during the formulation and design of modern and increasingly complex building materials not only technical design criteria should be considered. In addition environmental criteria should be applied to minimize eluation of pollutants from the materials during the construction and use phases and to increase the recyclability of the building materials after the useful life of the building structures ceases.