Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft

Publica

Hier finden Sie wissenschaftliche Publikationen aus den Fraunhofer-Instituten.

Analysis of technical spin-off effects of space-related R and D by means of patent indicators

 
: Jung, K.O.; Kirsch, N.; Ley, W.; Plescher, E.; Schmoch, U.

:

Acta astronautica 24 (1991), pp.353-362
ISSN: 0094-5765
Congress of the International Astronautical Federation <41, 1990, Dresden>
English
Conference Paper
Fraunhofer ISI ()
comparison of technology; patent analysis; patent citation; Patentanalyse; Patentzitat; Raumfahrt; Raumfahrtforschung; space research; space travel; spin-off; Technikvergleich

Abstract
An objective method for describing technology transfer from space research to non-space sectors is developed on the basis of patent indicators. In a first step, a sample of some 3000 space-related patents on the European and American market is etablished. This record is sufficient to permit an analysis of the R and D activities undertaken by the leading industrial nations in the space sector. With further assistance provided by the method of analyzing patent citations, however, it is then possible to discover spin-off effects in areas outside space technology, which are nevertheless closely related in technical terms to the basic space patents with which they are associated. In this way, it is possible to define areas which are particulary suited to adopt space technologies in earthbound applications. This method of analyzing citations, which in principle is familar for describing technology transfer within any one technical field, has thus beensuccessfully employed for the first time for analyzing spin-offs.
In view of increasing European activity in the field of manned space travel, intense discussion has arisen on the significance of associated spin-off effects. Alongside this predominantly political debate, however, there is also a purely pragmatic interest in transferring wherever possible the successful results from space research to other branches of industry, in order to achieve optimum exploitation of all the resources available. Until now, spin-offs from space technology have been analyzed by means of interviews conducted in the firms involved, a process harbouring a whole series of uncertainty factors. Potential spin-off fields are frequently ignored, and alleged transfers from space research often in reality stem from other sources. This survey develops an objective method of describing technology transfer based on patent indicators. The first step was to establish on line a total of some 3000 space patents filed since 1975 with destination to the European and American markets. This record is sufficient to permit an analysis of the R&D activities undertaken by the leading industrial nations in the space sector. With further assistance provided by the method of analyzing patent citations, however, it is then possible to discover spin-off effects in areas outside space technology, which are nevertheless closely related in technical terms to the basic space patents with which they are associated. In this way, it is possible to define areas which are particularly suited to adopt space technologies in earthbound applications. This method of analyzing citations, which in principle is familiar for describing technology transfer within any one technical field, has thus been successfully employed for the first time for analyzing spin-offs.

: http://publica.fraunhofer.de/documents/PX-3843.html