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Rückgewinnung von Treibmittelkomponenten durch Hochdruck-Hochtemperatur-Solvolyse

Recycling of propellant components by high pressure high temperature solvolysis
: Bohn, M.A.; Neumann, H.

Fraunhofer-Institut für Chemische Technologie -ICT-, Pfinztal:
Combustion and reaction kinetics
Pfinztal, 1991 (Proceedings of the International Annual Conference of ICT 22)
Fraunhofer-Institut für Chemische Technologie (Internationale Jahrestagung) <22, 1991, Karlsruhe>
Conference Paper
Fraunhofer ICT ()
binder; explosive; high-pressure; high temperature; Hydrolysis; polyurethane; propellant; recycling; solvolysis

A frequently used class of binders that continues to be developed for propellants and explosives is the polyurethane based polymers such as hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) and poly (glycidylazide) diol (GAP) as polyol component and with the appropriate polyisocyanate hardener. These binders are usually entangled and crosslinked in three dimensions. By solvolysis of the urethane groups the binder is split and the propellant components can be regained. To recover the polyols and the energetic substances, water is a suitable solvolysis medium because it does not block the polyols by etherification of the terminal hydroxy groups and is easy to remove. The hydrolysis of the polyurethane groups requires temperatures up to 230 IC, so that it must be done in a high pressure apparatus. The hydrolytic decomposition of the polyurethane groups leads to the polyol component and the polyisocyanate-hardener is converted to the corresponding polyamine. The crystalline energetic substances are released. If the used polyol component is resistant against solvolysis, it will be obtained directly as with GAP. Polyester polyols are hydrolyzed. Results of the hydrolysis of propellants with HTPB, GAP and a polyether diol binder component are shown and the high pressure high temperature apparatus is described.