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Reduction of friction and wear by ion-implanted carbonized photoresit
The influence of ion-implanted carbonized photoresist layers (AZ 5210) on wear and friction is discussed in this paper. Photoresist, an organic resin, is used because of the simple coating of the sample, the accurate controlling of the layer thickness, and the high amount of carbon. The samples investigated were coated by conventional spin-on techniques with layer thicknesses varied from 0.2 Mym to 2.2 Mym. The subsequent ion bombardment at energies of 200 keV and 1.4 MeV with doses from 1 x 10high16 cmhighminus2 to 1 x 10high17 cmhighminus2 caused carburization, densification and a mixing of the layer with the steel substrate. TEM investigations, Raman spectroscopy, ERDA and microhardness measurements confirmed the production of a hard, amorphous, hydrogen-containing (about 17 %) carbon layer after implantation. The layers were deposited on different steels (AISI 52100, AISI 440B unhardened, and AISI M2) and showed after implantation of B, Al, P, As, and Ti a strongly reducedfriction coefficient (lower than 0.2) and a drastically reduced wear behavior. The duration of the wear reduction depends on both the thickness of the carbonized photoresist layer and on the implanted ion dose. Doses of 5 x 10high16 cmhighminus2 for hard steels and doses of 1 x 10high17 cmhighminus2 for soft steels are necessary for reaching a sufficient layer adhesion by ion beam mixing.