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Preventive Process Maintenance in Tin/Lead Micro-plating For Flip-chip Mounting Technology

: Gemmler, A.; Leonhard, W.; Richter, H.; Rueß, K.

Plating and Surface Finishing 84 (1997), No.10, pp.64-71
ISSN: 0360-3164
Journal Article
Fraunhofer IPA ()
Bestücken; Drahtbondtechnik; Flip-Chip-Montagetechnik; Flip-Chip-Technik; Galvanische Beschichtung; Galvanisieren; gedruckte Schaltung; Legierung; Microplating; Prozeßüberwachung; Schutzschicht; Tin/lead alloy plating; Wafer bumping; Zinn/Blei-Legierung

The deposition of bumps is a prerequisite for flip-chip attachment of bare dice. Usually for silicon semiconductors, bumping is done on the ICs. Bump manufacturing can be accomplished through (lithographic) mask microplating or vapor deposition techniques at wafer scale; mechanical methods are known also. Within this study, important aspects of preventive maintenance for tin/lead micro-plating are reported. The composition of the plating bath used enables the deposition of eutectic as well as lead-rich solder. All key issues of the plating process, covering pre-plating techniques, plating equipment, special electrolyte characteristics and process parameters, are discussed. Additionally, quality assurance is supported by the methods described for bump characterization.