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The nonspecific immune system of the lung

: Lohmann-Matthes, M.-L.; Franke, G.

Jenkins, P.G.; Kayser, D.; Muhle, H.; Rosner, G.; Smith, E.M. ; Medizinische Hochschule Hannover; International Life Sciences Institute -ILSI-, Washington/D.C.; Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit -BMU-, Bonn; Fraunhofer-Institut für Toxikologie und Aerosolforschung -ITA-, Hannover:
Respiratory toxicology and risk assessment. Proceedings of an International Symposium
Stuttgart: Wissenschaftliche Verlags-Gesellschaft, 1994 (IPCS Joint Series 18)
ISBN: 3-8047-1327-0
International Symposium "Respiratory Toxicology and Risk Assessment" <1992, Hannover>
Conference Paper
Fraunhofer ITA ( ITEM) ()
granulocytes; immune system; immunology; killer cells; lung; lymphocytes; macrophages; pulmonary alveoli; respiratory organs

The lung possesses two immune systems, one in the alveolar space, which consists primarily of alveolar macrophages, and one in the interstitium and the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT), which comprises both nonspecific and specific components. The primary targets for invading foreign material are the alveolar macrophages. These secrete in response to stimulation chemotactic substances which attract within a short time granulocytes into the alveoli. The alveolar macrophages are especially well equipped with defence mechanisms against microorganisms. Material which passes this first nonspecific barrier enters the interstitium, where it is phagocytosed and presented to the interstitial lymphocytes. Antigen presentation and T-cell recognition also takes place in the BALT. Interstitial macrophages are particularly well equipped with mechanisms that are important for antigen presentation, such as expression of MHC 2, IL-1 and IL-6 secretion.