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Non-destructive-diagnostic for material degradation - New approaches to characterise hydrogen attack at X20Cr13 steel and high cycle fatigue at steel 1.4551

: Dobmann, G.; Lang, M.

Estorff, U.v.; Davies, L.M.; Trampus, P.:
NDT Methods for Monitoring Degradation
Luxembourg: European Commission, 1999 (EUR 18718)
Joint EC IAEA Specialists Meeting <1999, Petten>
Conference Paper
Fraunhofer IZFP ()
component; materials characterization; mechanical property; nondestructive testing

Destructive testing of materials for determination of mechanical properties and later also non-destructive testing (NDT), historically speaking, have their roots in the safety technology beginning in the last century when steam engines were developed asking for pressurised components. The foundation of the union of steam vessel users was the beginning of these activities in Germany. Whereas at this time material properties only were destructively assessed under loads NDT was visual inspection and the objectives for the tests were detection of irregularities and nonconformities in the joints of the components, which - at that in pressurised components started to become a regular procedure after the 1st world war when techniques like magnetic particle inspection for surface breacking cracks in 1917 by Hoke in US [1] and later X-ray radiography by Lester in 1922 [2] for bulk volume inspection were aviable. Non-destructive characterisation of materials and especially the objective to deter mine mechanical properties like hardness, yield strength, tensile strength, ect., by NDT means is an activity which started after the 2nd world war and the methodology was mainly developed in the last two decades [3].