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Microscopic techniques for nondestructive characterization of material structures and measurement of local residual stresses with high resolution
Materials properties, for instance mechanical properties, are usually determined by destructive methods with standardized test specimen and test procedures. Usually, material properties can be correlated to the microstructure of the material. There are different dimensions in the microstructure which may influence different types of material properties. Nondestructive methods for material characterization are sensitive to various in the material structure and thus can be indirect measure of material properties. The present tendency is to integrate quality assurance measures during the materials development stage and the fabrication process in order to reduce the costs incurred by defects. Micro-NDT methods are being increasingly applied which characterize the condition of the materila by providing local high-resolution images, especially for new materials.