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Loads at the nose landing gears of civil transport aircraft during towbarless towing operations.

Belastung der Bugfahrwerke von Verkehrsflugzeugen beim stangenlosen Schleppen
: Cuny, J.J.; Buxbaum, O.; Klätschke, H.; Steinhilber, H.

Engineering Materials Advisory Services Ltd. -EMAS-, Cradley Heath:
Aeronautical fatigue - key to safety and structural integrity. Proceedings
Warley, 1991
pp.43-65 : Abb.,Tab.,Lit.
International Committee on Aeronautical Fatigue (Symposium) <16, 1991, Tokyo>
Conference Paper
Fraunhofer LBF ()
Betriebsbeanspruchung; Bugfahrwerk; Fahrwerkslast; fatigue strength aircraft industry; Flugzeugbau; landing gear load; Lastspektrum; load spectrum; measurement; Messung; nose landing gear; operational loading; Schwingfestigkeit; stangenloses Schleppen; towbarless towing; transport aircraft; Transportflugzeug

Tow tractors operating without towbar facilitate the ground handling of civil transport aircraft. In this paper, the loads at the nose landing gears during towbarless towing operations are described based on extensive measurements and on analytical investigations. The necessary load limitation during extreme situations, e.g. emergency brakings, is discussed. Fatigue load spectra for towbarless towing and push-back operations were derived from operational measurements and are compared with load spectra for towbar operations. Recommendations are presented how the operational loads can be reduced by an appropriate design of towbarless tractors. Some remarks are made about towing of fully loaded aircraft to the runway.