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Investigation of heteroepitaxial diamond films by scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy

: Jiang, X.; Schiffmann, K.I.

Applied physics. A (1994), No.59, pp.17-22
ISSN: 0340-3793
ISSN: 0721-7250
ISSN: 0947-8396
Journal Article
Fraunhofer IST ()
AFM; atomic force microscopy; crystal tilt; Diamant; diamond; Heteroepitaxie; heteroepitaxy; Keimbildung; Kristallneigung; nucleation; Oberflächenrekonstruktion; Rasterkraftmikroskopie; Rastertunnelmikroskopie; scanning tunneling microscopy; STM; surface reconstruction

We report on atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy investigations on chemical vapour deposited heteroepitaxial diamond films. Besides the good macroscopic crystal morphology a statistical tilting up to +/-5.2 degrees Centigrade of the oriented crystalites has been found relative to the silicon substrates. By optimizing the process conditions, however, the crystal tilting of the films can be reduced, resulting in an improved film perfection. On crystallite (001)-surfaces a substructure of microcrystallites or growth facets has been found and high resolution STM images has established a 2x1 surface reconstruction on these growth facets. AFM and SEM were applied to study the morphology of diamond nuclei initially grown on the silicon substrate. Strong island like (Volmer-Weber) growth has been found, with a nucleus height to diameter ratio of 1:1. While the islands are growing in size with the time of nucleation, its aspect ratio does not change, due to the high surfac e free energy of the diamond relative to silicon.