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High resolution X-ray and ultrasonic methods for the non-destructive evaluation of modern ceramics
A combination of favourable characteristic features has led to an increasing application of modern ceramics. The utilization in practice requires a sufficient reliability. The low fracture toughness characteristic of ceramics demands procedures to guarantee the quality of the components. Non-destructive evaluation (NDE) can contribute an essential part to quality control of modern ceramics. Very small defects can lead to failure. Often a size of 50 mym is mentioned as critical defect size. This requires special efforts for the non-destructive testing procedures to be used. NDE of ceramics must begin with the characterization of powders. It should cover the prefired green ceramics and the dense sintered component. The quality of a component is characterized by structure, stress, and defects. Each topic needs special NDE-methods. This contribution focusses on high resolution X-ray and ultrasonic methods especially for the NDE of defects and inhomogenities in ceramic materials andcompone nts.