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Entsorgung von Explosivstoffen mit überkritischen Verfahren.
Disposal of explosives by supercritical methods
Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is an up-coming new method to dispose of hazardous waste. Under supercritical conditions water shows the unusual behavior of an organic solvent. Also gaseous species like nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and carbon dioxide are soluble in supercritical water. To test if SCWO-Technic is a useful method to dispose of energetic materials we tested the reaction behavior of explosives in supercritical water. To differ between oxidation and hydrolysis reactions we analyzed first the hydrolysis reaction of DNT and TNT. DNT as well as TNT show a different reaction behavior at sub- and supercritical conditions. At 150 degree Celsius (0.6-1 MPa) TNT produces under alkaline hydrolysis conditions nitride, ammonium, nitrogen and dinitrogen monoxide. On stronger alkaline content gas production is reduced and more ionic species are formed. Under supercritical conditions 400 degree Celsius (28-35 MPa) the formation of gaseous products is in the foreground. Mainproduct is N sub 2. As ionic species no NO sub 2 was found only NH high minus/sub 2 was found only NH high plus/sub 4 is formed. The solid residues after supercritical hydrolysis treatment contain isoquinoline and isomeric methylquinolines. The overall conversion ratio relatively to the nitrogen content of TNT is about 50 percent under supercritical as well as subcritical conditions.