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Thermal decomposition behavior of the flame retardant melamine in slabstock flexible polyurethane foams

: König, A.; Fehrenbacher, U.; Kroke, E.; Hirth, T.


Journal of fire sciences 27 (2009), No.3, pp.187-211
ISSN: 0734-9041
ISSN: 1530-8049
Journal Article
Fraunhofer ICT ()

Due to their low density, high surface-to-mass ratio, high air permeability and open cell structure, slabstock polyurethane foams ignite easily and have a high burning velocity. In this study, the decomposition behavior of melamine in both an inert and an oxygen atmosphere has been investigated. TGA/DSC and EGA-IR experiments revealed the decomposition steps and products in inert and oxygen atmospheres, respectively. Cone calorimeter, NIR-flame characterization and small-scale burner test results showed that the excellent working mechanism of melamine as a flame retardant mainly depends on the formation of an effective closed char layer, which may involve condensation of melamine to form melam, melem, and related products as well as reactions of the amino and isocyanato groups forming urea derivatives, and the sublimation of melamine at the exact temperature at which TDI release occurs.