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Electrostatic chucks for lithography applications

: Kalkowski, G.; Risse, S.; Harnisch, G.; Guyenot, V.


Microelectronic engineering 57-58 (2001), pp.219-222
ISSN: 0167-9317
Journal Article
Fraunhofer IOF ()
electrostatic chuck; dielectric; glass-ceramic; Johnsen-Rahbek; lithography

High precision electrostatic chucks with diameters up to 12 inches are being developed at IOF for electron/ion-beam lithography applications. For optimal performance, selection of the appropriate chuck dielectric is crucial. We have tested various materials, including sapphire, quartz and glass-ceramics with respect to chucking force under vacuum conditions. Differences in electrostatic force of more than an order of magnitude were observed and are attributed to Coulomb and Johnsen-Rahbek behaviour. For the former, reasonable agreement with theoretical calculations was obtained when taking the corresponding dielectric constants and a finite gap between wafer and support into account. Time constants for chucking and dechucking were determined for the latter.