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The use of windows as controls for indoor environmental conditions in schools

: Hellwig, R.; Antretter, F.; Holm, A.; Sedlbauer, K.

presentation (PDF; )

Network for Comfort and Energy Use in Buildings -NCEUB-, London:
The 5th Windsor Conference: Air conditioning and the low carbon cooling challenge. Proceedings of conference : Cumberland Lodge, Windsor, UK, 27-29 July 2008
London: NCEUB, 2008
16 pp.
Windsor Conference "Air Conditioning and the Low Carbon Cooling Challenge" <5, 2008, Windsor>
Conference Paper, Electronic Publication
Fraunhofer IBP ()
natürliche Lüftung; Innenraumklima; natural ventilation; indoor climate; retrofitting; school; Schule; Altbauerneuerung

There are more than 40,000 school buildings in Germany. Most of them are awaiting retrofitting. Retrofitting is not only intended to improve the energetic standards, but first of all to improve indoor environmental conditions for pupils and teachers. As most of German schools are not equipped with mechanical ventilation systems, natural ventilation controlled by the occupants opening the windows is the main way to maintain healthy and comfortable conditions in the classrooms. For that purpose the influence of window opening behaviour of the occupants on the indoor environment was measured in two German schools. Temperature and carbon dioxide concentration of the indoor air as well as the outdoor climate conditions were measured. In one school the frequency of window opening was recorded. Besides high CO2-concentrations especially during winter, some of the investigated classrooms are additionally to cold in winter or to hot in summer. Some classrooms do not have a shading device or the shading device is insufficient or it constricts the ventilation of the room. Windows are used as controls in some degree during lessons and during the breaks. But windows get closed after lessons and stay closed until next morning. There is no night or early morning ventilation in summer. A significant weak to moderate positive correlation between total open window ratio and indoor temperature has been found. Correlation between total open window ratio and outdoor temperature is not significant in most cases or show a weak correlation coefficient.