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Detection and imaging of the plant pathogen response by near-infrared fluorescent polyphenol sensors

: Nißler, Robert; Müller, Andrea Teresa; Dohrman, Frederike; Kurth, Larissa; Li, Han; Cosio Eric G.; Flavel, Benjamin S.; Giraldo, Juan Pablo; Mithöfer, Axel; Kruss, Sebastian

Fulltext ()

Angewandte Chemie. International edition 61 (2022), No.2, Art. e202108373, 10 pp.
ISSN: 1433-7851
ISSN: 0044-8249
ISSN: 0570-0833
ISSN: 1521-3773
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG
390677874; RESOLV
EXC 2033: Ruhr Explores Solvation
Journal Article, Electronic Publication
Fraunhofer IMS ()
biosensors; near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence; pathogens; nanomaterials; smart agriculture; polyphenol; plants

Plants use secondary metabolites such as polyphenols for chemical defense against pathogens and herbivores. Despite their importance in plant pathogen interactions and tolerance to diseases, it remains challenging to detect polyphenols in complex plant tissues. Here, we create molecular sensors for plant polyphenol imaging that are based on near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). We identified polyethylene glycol- phospholipids that render (6,5)-SWCNTs sensitive ( K d = 90 nM) to plant polyphenols (tannins, flavonoids, …), which red-shift (up to 20 nm) and quench their emission (~1000 nm). These sensors report changes in total polyphenol level after herbivore or pathogen challenge in crop plant systems (Soybean Glycine max ) and leaf tissue extracts ( Tococa spp). We furthermore demonstrate remote chemical imaging of pathogen-induced polyphenol release from roots of soybean seedlings over the time course of 24h. This approach allows in situ visualization and understanding of the chemical plant defense in real time and paves the way for plant phenotyping for optimized polyphenol secretion.