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Evaluation of the toxic potential of different nanoparticles in neuronal and glial cell cultures

: Iwe, M.; Bastian, S.; Holke, R.; Meißner, T.; Richter, V.; Potthoff, A.; Springer, A.; Gelinski, M.; Pompe, W.; Ikonomidou, H.

Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung -BMBF-; European Commission:
Nanotechnology in industrial applications. EuroNanoForum 2007 : European and International Forum on Nanotechnology; Proceedings of the forum organized by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany, with the support of the European Commission, held in Düsseldorf on 19 - 21 June 2007
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2007 (EUR 22833)
ISBN: 978-92-79-05481-5
Reportnr.: KI-NA-22833-EN-C
European and International Forum on Nanotechnology (EuroNanoForum) <3, 2007, Düsseldorf>
Fraunhofer IKTS ()
glial cell line; neuronal cell line; nanoparticle; toxicity; carbon nanotubes; cellular uptake; Cobalt; tungsten carbide

The aim of this study is to investigate neurotoxicity and gliotoxicity of nanoparticles to which humans may be exposed in the context of medical applications, during manufacturing processes or by using nanoparticle containing products. In vivo studies have shown that nanoparticles can be found within the brain of exposed animals. However, there is little known about the interaction of nanoparticles with neurons and glial cells.
So far we assessed the effects of nanoscaled tungsten carbide [WC], nanoscaled tungsten carbide cobalt [WC-Co], which are released during the manufacturing process of tools, and purified single-walled carbon nanotubes [SWCNT] which are of growing interest in technical and medical investigations.
Culture systems used include the oligodendrocyte cell line OLN 93, primary neuronal cultures, astrocytes and microglial cellsobtained from fetal or newborn rat brain. These cultures are exposed to nanoparticles and resulting effects are studied in a time and concentration dependent manner.
To identify whether cell toxicity occurs, we applied in a first step different in vitro viability and cytotoxicity assays (CCK 8, MTT, LDH). The results show that WC nanoparticles are less toxic than WC-Co nanoparticles and SWCNT in our cell culture systems. In OLN 93 cells all analysed particles reduced cell viability significantly. Using the TUNEL assay we found a small increase in apoptotic cells following treatment with WC. Cellular uptake and distribution of the examined nanoparticles is currently analysed by electron microscopy. The obtained data of our studies suggest that nanoparticle exposure may impose a risk for the central nervous system.