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Can smart policies solve the sand mining problem?

 
: Hübler, Michael; Pothen, Frank

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Fulltext ()

PLoS one. Online journal 16 (2021), No.4, Art. e0248882, 15 pp.
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?action=archive&journal=440
ISSN: 1932-6203
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung BMBF (Deutschland)
01LA1828C; ROCHADE
English
Journal Article, Electronic Publication
Fraunhofer IMW ()

Abstract
While sand has become a scarce essential resource for construction and land reclamation worldwide, its extraction causes severe ecological damage and high social costs. To derive policy solutions to this paramount global challenge with broad applicability, this model-based analysis exemplarily studies sand trade from Southeast Asia to Singapore. Accordingly, a coordinated transboundary sand output tax reduces sand mining to a large extent, while the economic costs are small for the sand importer and slightly positive for the exporters. As a novel policy implementation approach, a “Sand Extraction Allowances Trading Scheme” is proposed, which helps sustainably balance the importer’s economic growth with the exporters’ economic development.

: http://publica.fraunhofer.de/documents/N-638133.html