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Rheological and chemical interaction between volcanic ash and thermal barrier coatings

: Müller, D.; Hess, K.-U.; Kueppers, U.; Lokachari, S.; Dingwell, D.B.; Wolf, G.; Rokicki, P.; Nowotnik, A.


Surface and coatings technology 412 (2021), Art. 127049
ISSN: 0257-8972
Journal Article
Fraunhofer UMSICHT Sulzbach-Rosenberg ()
CMAS; environmental barrier coating; Gadolinium zirconate (GZO); gas turbine; volcanic hazards; Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)

Combustion temperatures (>1200 °C) in gas turbines cause softening and eventually melting of ingested volcanic ash particles. In the downstream section, lower temperatures lead to droplet deposition onto the thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of the turbine blades. The intensity of interaction (wetting and chemical interaction) depends on the ash and TBC chemistry as well as the TBC structure. We have determined the spreading behavior of five different volcanic ash melts on four types of TBCs. The TBCs differed in their composition - yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and gadolinium zirconate (GZO) – and in their fabrication - air plasma spraying (APS) and electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The spreading properties have been parameterized on the basis of four parameters, 1) the CaO-SiO2-ratio, 2) optical basicity, 3) the Rb/a ratio and 4) the viscosity of the volcanic ash melts. Infiltration efficiency of the melts into the TBCs and corrosion characteristics have been determined via electron microprobe analysis of cross sections. In this study, the highest damage potential was found following interaction with basaltic melt, as its low viscosity is favorable to extensive spreading and high chemical reactivity.