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Laser metal deposition of Al0.6CoCrFeNi with Ti & C additions using elemental powder blends

: Asabre, Alex; Wilms, B. Markus; Kostka, Aleksander; Gemagami, Parham; Weisheit, Andreas; Laplanche, Guillaume

Fulltext ()

Surface and coatings technology 418 (2021), Art. 127233, 13 pp.
ISSN: 0257-8972
Journal Article, Electronic Publication
Fraunhofer ILT ()
high-entropy alloy; compositionally complex alloys; additive manufacturing; laser cladding; mechanical property

Laser metal deposition (LMD) was used to in-situ alloy a crack-free Al0.6CoCrFeNi compositionally complex alloy (CCA) with 3 at.% Ti and 0.25 at.% C additions on an initially ferritic H10 tool steel from an elemental powder blend. After LMD, the material was annealed at 900 °C for 30 min to induce martensitic hardening in the substrate. The CCA in both as-deposited and annealed states exhibited a lamellar microstructure consisting of four phases: a matrix of interwoven disordered and ordered body-centered cubic phases, titanium carbides distributed randomly within the microstructure, and disordered face-centered cubic (FCC) plates that precipitated at the grain boundaries and grew towards the center of the grains. Chemical analyses along the build-up direction of the coating revealed a compositional gradient, similar in both as-deposited and annealed states, due to the intermixing between the substrate and the CCA. Despite a strong variation of the Fe-content, the hardness and the microstructure remain roughly constant in the major part of the as-deposited coating, which contains a large fraction of FCC plates that are beneficial to increase ductility and ensure a good compatibility with the substrate. In contrast, the upper part of the as-deposited coating, corresponding to the last solidified melt pool after LMD, has a much lower FCC fraction with an enhanced hardness. After annealing, the hardness of the tool steel substrate significantly increased and the FCC volume fraction in the coating increased from ~16% (as-deposited) to ~58%. Overall the microstructure of the coating became more homogeneous while its hardness decreased only by 10–15%. These results demonstrate that the CCA can be employed as a protective coating on a less expensive tool steel to improve its lifetime during service.