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Propagation of Crystal Defects During Directional Solidification of Silicon via Induction of Functional Defects

 
: Krenckel, P.; Hayama, Y.; Schindler, F.; Trötschler, T.; Riepe, S.; Usami, N.

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Crystals 11 (2021), No.2, Art. 90, 10 pp.
ISSN: 2073-4352
English
Journal Article, Electronic Publication
Fraunhofer ISE ()
Photovoltaik; crystal structure; directional solidification; dislocation; grain boundaries; SMART seeding; Silicium-Photovoltaik; feedstock; Kristallisation; wafering

Abstract
The introduction of directional solidified cast mono silicon promised a combination of the cheaper production via a casting process with monocrystalline material quality, but has been struggling with high concentration of structural defects. The SMART approach uses functional defects to maintain the monocrystalline structure with low dislocation densities. In this work, the feasibility of the SMART approach is shown for larger ingots. A G2 sized crystal with SMART and cast mono silicon parts has been analyzed regarding the structural defects via optical analysis, crystal orientation, and etch pit measurements. Photoluminescence measurements on passivated and processed samples were used for characterization of the electrical material quality. The SMART approach has successfully resulted in a crystal with mono area share over 90% and a confinement of dislocation structures in the functional defect region over the whole ingot height compared to a mono area share of down to 50% and extending dislocation tangles in the standard cast mono Si. Cellular structures in photoluminescence measurements could be attributed to cellular dislocation patterns. The SMART Si material showed very high and most homogeneous lifetime values enabling solar cell efficiencies up to 23.3%.

: http://publica.fraunhofer.de/documents/N-633989.html