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Nanoparticles under the spotlight. Intracellular fate and toxic effects on cells of aquatic organisms as revealed by microscopy

: Jimeno-Romero, A.; Kohl, Y.; Marigómez, I.; Soto, M.

Blasco, J.:
Ecotoxicology of nanoparticles in aquatic systems
Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press, 2019
ISBN: 978-1-315-15876-1
ISBN: 978-1-138-06726-4
Book Article
Fraunhofer IBMT ()

In the present chapter, we will follow the life cycle of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) from the moment they are released into the aquatic environment to their ultimate intracellular fate after being internalized by living aquatic organisms. This chapter will address how high-resolution visualization of NPs in target tissue and cell compartments of aquatic organisms combined with the in situ quantification of NPs by digital microscopy can enhance our understanding of NP-cell interactions. During their journey from the environment to cells, NPs will experience several physical and chemical modifications, which will affect their speciation, bioavailability, fate and their possible toxic potential to aquatic organisms. Herein a thorough review of microscopy techniques available to characterize environmental NPs and, most importantly, to determine how they pass across biological barriers, how they end up being internalized by cells and where and how can they cause toxic effects is carried out.