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Intense pulsed light in back end processing of solar cells with passivating contacts based on amorphous or polycrystalline silicon layers

: Schube, J.; Tutsch, L.; Fellmeth, T.; Feldmann, F.; Weil, M.; Harter, A.; Polzin, J.-I.; Bivour, M.; Keding, R.; Glunz, S.W.


Solar energy materials and solar cells 216 (2020), Art. 110711
ISSN: 0927-0248
Journal Article
Fraunhofer ISE ()
Photovoltaik; Silicium-Photovoltaik; Pilotherstellung von industrienahen Si-Solarzellen; pulsed light; metallization; sintering; hetero junction solar cells; TOPCon

Intense pulsed light (IPL) is capable of entirely replacing thermal annealing (curing and contact formation) within back end processing of silicon solar cells with passivating contacts. In order to demonstrate this, full-size silicon heterojunction (SHJ) cells with IPL-processed screen-printed metal contacts are fabricated. The device with the highest conversion efficiency reaches 23.0%, which is confirmed by Fraunhofer ISE CalLab. On average, IPL-annealed SHJ cells outperform their thermally treated pendants by 0.3–0.4%abs, in particular due to higher open-circuit voltages and fill factors. To further exploit the potential of IPL, it is applied to tunnel oxide passivating contacts (TOPCon). 2 cm × 2 cm-sized p-type solar cells with TOPCon layers on both sides are fabricated. On the front they exhibit indium tin oxide (ITO) layers as well as screen-printed metal contacts which are either thermally or IPL-annealed. The trade-off between low contact resistivity at the TOPCon/ITO interface and high-quality surface passivation (open-circuit voltages of up to 709.4 mV) is balanced, which is a current challenge for the optimization of such devices. The IPL-processed cells’ series resistances do not differ significantly from those of thermally treated ones. Due to the pulse durations of several milliseconds only, IPL is very fast and offers a high throughput and, therefore, cost saving potential.