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Multi-Phases and Various Feature Extraction and Selection Methodology for Ensemble Gradient Boosting in Estimating Respiratory Rate

: Lee, Soojeung; Son, Chang-Hwan; Albertini, Marcelo K.; Fernandes, Henrique Coelho

Fulltext ()

IEEE access 8 (2020), pp.125648-125658
ISSN: 2169-3536
National Research Foundation of Korea NRF
Journal Article, Electronic Publication
Fraunhofer IZFP ()
Respiration rate estimation; gradient boosting algorithm; ensemble methodology; photolethysmography signals

Estimating the correct respiratory rate (RR) is an essential technique for intensive care units, hospitals, geriatric hospital facilities, and home care services. Capnography is a standard methodology used to monitor carbon dioxide concentrations or partial pressures of respiratory gases to provide the most accurate RR measurements. However, it is inconvenient to use and has been primarily used while administering anesthesia and during intensive care. Many researchers now use electrocardiogram signals to estimate RR. Despite the recent developments, the current hospital environments suffer from inaccurate respiratory monitoring. While various machine learning techniques, including deep learning, have recently been applied to the medical processing sector, only a few studies have been conducted in the field of RR estimation. Therefore, using photoplethysmography, machine-learning techniques such as the ensemble gradient boosting algorithm are being employed in RR estimation. Multi-phases are used based on various feature extraction and selection methodology to improve the performance for RR estimation. In this study, the number of ensembles is increased, and the proposed ensemble methodology is effectively learned to estimate the RR. The proposed ensemble-based gradient boosting algorithm are compared with those of ensemble-based long-short memory network, and ensemble-based supported vector regression techniques, 3.30 breaths per min (bpm), 4.82 bpm and 5.83 bpm based on mean absolute errors. The proposed method shows a more accurate estimate of the respiration rate.