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Investigation on the formation of grain boundary serrations in additively manufactured superalloy Haynes 230

 
: Haack, Maximilian; Kuczyk, Martin; Seidel, André; Lopez, Elena; Brückner, Frank; Leyens, Christoph

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Journal of laser applications : JLA 32 (2020), No.3, Art. 032014
ISSN: 1042-346X
ISSN: 1938-1387
English
Journal Article
Fraunhofer IWS ()
additives; Nickel superalloys; scanning electron microscopy; nickel alloys; microstructure; metal pressing; hot isostatic pressing; heat treatment; grain boundaries; fracture; cooling; carbide

Abstract
Solid-solution and carbide-strengthened superalloys such as Haynes 230 are the materials of choice for the hot-section components of gas turbines, e.g., combustion cans and transition ducts. Under severe thermal conditions, to which those parts are exposed, creep strength is a crucial property of the related materials during their lifetime. Recently, the introduction of serrated grain boundaries in Haynes 230 has been intensively studied [J. G. Yoon, H. W. Jeong, Y. S. Yoo, and H. U. Hong, “Influence of initial microstructure on creep deformation behaviors and fracture characteristics of Haynes 230 superalloy at 900 °C,” Mater. Charact. 101, 49–57 (2015); L. Jiang, R. Hu, H. Kou, J. Li, G. Bai, and H. Fu, “The effect of M23C6 carbides on the formation of grain boundary serrations in a wrought Ni-based superalloy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 536, 37–44 (2012)], and nearly a triplication of the time to creep failure at high temperature and low stress conditions has been observed [J. G. Yoon, H. W. Jeong, Y. S. Yoo, and H. U. Hong, “Influence of initial microstructure on creep deformation behaviors and fracture characteristics of Haynes 230 superalloy at 900 °C,” Mater. Charact. 101, 49–57 (2015)]. The aim of this paper is to achieve serrated grain boundaries in Haynes 230 through an appropriate thermal process chain including the intrinsic heat treatments of the laser metal deposition (LMD) process, subsequent hot isostatic pressing and suitable heat treatments. The formation of serrations is a relatively new technique for Haynes 230 (i.e., first paper in 2012), and similar alloys and thus serrations have only been introduced in conventionally cast or wrought alloys so far. Optical and scanning electron microscopies are employed in this work to investigate the created microstructures, whose grain and carbide structure is finer compared to the recently studied conventionally processed alloys. Within the LMD samples, serrations were already found on almost all of the observed grain boundaries even in the as-build condition. This result was rather unexpected, as literature reports slow-cooling to be responsible for the formation of serrations, while fast-cooling is prevalent in LMD. Some authors associated the formation of serrations to the precipitation of M23C6-carbides at the grain boundaries during slow cooling conditions [L. Jiang, R. Hu, H. Kou, J. Li, G. Bai, and H. Fu, “The effect of M23C6 carbides on the formation of grain boundary serrations in a wrought Ni-based superalloy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 536, 37–44 (2012)]. The lower density of carbides along grain boundaries in the as-build state, however, makes this mechanism seem unlikely. Other authors attributed the emergence of serrations to a phenomenon similar to the faceting mechanism [J. G. Yoon, H. W. Jeong, Y. S. Yoo, and H. U. Hong, “Influence of initial microstructure on creep deformation behaviors and fracture characteristics of Haynes 230 superalloy at 900 °C,” Mater. Charact. 101, 49–57 (2015)]. It can be said that no uniform theory for the emergence of grain boundary serrations exists as of now. The electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) investigations performed in this work indicated a correlation between serrated grain boundary segments, the {111}-directions of the crystal lattice, and possibly segregations along dendritic subgrain boundaries for a two-dimensional case. Serial sectioning in combination with EBSD analysis confirmed an agreement between the three-dimensional orientation of serrated grain boundary segments and the {111}-direction of adjacent grains. Hence, a mechanism different from the ones described in previous works is proposed for the formation of grain boundary serrations in the additively manufactured Haynes 230 alloy.

: http://publica.fraunhofer.de/documents/N-596827.html