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Long-term stimulation of toll-like receptor-2 and -4 upregulates 5-LO and 15-LO-2 expression thereby inducing a lipid mediator shift in human monocyte-derived macrophages

: Ebert, R.; Cumbana, R.; Lehmann, C.; Kutzner, L.; Toewe, A.; Ferreirós, N.; Parnham, M.J.; Schebb, N.H.; Steinhilber, D.; Kahnt, A.S.

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Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular and cell biology of lipids 1865 (2020), No.9, Art.158702
ISSN: 1388-1981
Journal Article, Electronic Publication
Fraunhofer IME ()

Macrophage polarization switches during the course of inflammation along with the lipid mediators released. We investigated the lipid mediator formation in human monocyte-derived macrophages during in vitro differentiation and pathogen stimulation. For this, peripheral blood monocytes were differentiated into M1 (CSF-2/IFNγ) or M2 (CSF-1/IL-4) macrophages followed by stimulation with the toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands zymosan (TLR-2), Poly(I:C) (TLR-3) or bacterial lipopolysaccharides (TLR-4) mimicking fungal, viral and bacterial infection, respectively. Expression of enzymes involved in lipid mediator formation such as 5- and 15-lipoxygenases (LO), the 5-LO activating protein and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was monitored on mRNA and protein level and lipid mediator formation was assessed. In addition, cytokine release was measured. In vitro differentiation of human peripheral blood monocytes to M1 and M2 macrophages considerably attenuated 5-LO activity. Furthermore, while TLR-2 and -4 stimulation of M1 macrophages primarily triggered pro-inflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators, persistent stimulation (16 h) of human M2 macrophages induced a coordinated upregulation of 5- and 15-LO-2 expression. This was accompanied by a marked increase in IL-10 and monohydroxylated 15-LO products in the conditioned media of the cells. After additional stimulation with Ca2+ ionophore combined with supplementation of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid these cells also released small amounts of SPM such as lipoxins and resolvins. From this we conclude that activation of TLR-2 or -4 triggers the biosynthesis of pro-inflammatory 5-LO and COX-2 derived lipid mediators in human monocyte-derived M1 macrophages while persistent stimulation of M2 macrophages induces a shift towards pro-resolving 15-LO derived oxylipins.