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Histone deacetylation inhibitors as modulators of regulatory T cells

: Knethen, A. von; Heinicke, U.; Weigert, A.; Zacharowski, K.; Brüne, B.

Fulltext ()

International journal of molecular sciences 21 (2020), No.7, Art. 2356, 21 pp.
ISSN: 1422-0067
ISSN: 1661-6596
Journal Article, Electronic Publication
Fraunhofer IME ()

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important mediators of immunological self-tolerance and homeostasis. Being cluster of differentiation 4+Forkhead box protein3+ (CD4+FOXP3+), these cells are a subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes and can originate from the thymus (tTregs) or from the periphery (pTregs). The malfunction of CD4+ Tregs is associated with autoimmune responses such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), type 1 diabetes (T1D), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and transplant rejection. Recent evidence supports an opposed role in sepsis. Therefore, maintaining functional Tregs is considered as a therapy regimen to prevent autoimmunity and allograft rejection, whereas blocking Treg differentiation might be favorable in sepsis patients. It has been shown that Tregs can be generated from conventional naïve T cells, called iTregs, due to their induced differentiation. Moreover, Tregs can be effectively expanded in vitro based on blood-derived tTregs. Taking into consideration that the suppressive role of Tregs has been mainly attributed to the expression and function of the transcription factor Foxp3, modulating its expression and binding to the promoter regions of target genes by altering the chromatin histone acetylation state may turn out beneficial. Hence, we discuss the role of histone deacetylation inhibitors as epigenetic modulators of Tregs in this review in detail.