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Laser metal deposition of copper on diverse metals using green laser sources

: Siva Prasad, Himani; Brückner, Frank; Volpp, Jörg; Kaplan, Alexander Friedrich Hermann

Fulltext ()

The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 107 (2020), No.3-4, pp.1559-1568
ISSN: 0268-3768
ISSN: 1433-3015
Journal Article, Electronic Publication
Fraunhofer IWS ()
absorptivity; powder grain incorporation; Multi-Material; laser metal deposition (LMD); laser metal deposition; high speed imaging; Green 515-nm laser; directed energy deposition; DED; copper; additive manufacturing

Green laser sources are advantageous in the processing of copper due to the increase of absorptivity compared with more commonly available infrared lasers. Laser metal deposition of copper with a green laser onto various substrate metals namely copper, aluminium, steel and titanium alloy was carried out and observed through high-speed imaging. The effects of process parameters such as laser power, cladding speed and powder feed rate, and material attributes such as absorptivity, surface conditions and thermal conductivity are tied together to explain the size and geometry of the melt pool as well as the fraction of the power used for melting material. The copper substrate has the smallest melt pool with a high angle, followed by aluminium, steel and titanium alloy. The incorporation times for powder grains in the melt pools vary based on the substrate materials. Its dependency on material properties, including surface tension forces, melting temperatures and material density, is discussed. Oxide skins present on melt pools can affect powder incorporation, most significantly on the aluminium substrate. The lower limits of the fraction of power irradiated on the surface used purely for melting were calculated to be 0.73%, 2.94%, 5.95% and 9.78% for the copper, aluminium, steel and titanium alloy substrates, respectively, showing a strong dependence on thermal conductivity of the substrate material. For a copper wall built, the fraction was 2.66%, much higher than a single clad on a copper substrate, due to reduced workpiece heating. The results of this paper can be transferred to other metals with low absorptivity such as gold.