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All Copper NICE Modules

: Reinwand, D.; Pysch, D.; Bay, N.; Burschik, J.; Kuehnlein, H.H.; Madon, F.; Einhaus, R.; Brand, A.; Arya, V.; Smith, B.; Richter, D.; Kray, D.


Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers -IEEE-:
IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, WCPEC 2018 : A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC & 34th EU PVSEC, 10-15 June 2018, Waikoloa Village, HI, USA
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2018
ISBN: 978-1-5386-8529-7
ISBN: 978-1-5386-8530-3
World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC) <7, 2018, Waikoloa/Hawaii>
Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) <45, 2018, Waikoloa/Hawaii>
Photovoltaic Science and Engineering Conference (PVSEC) <28, 2018, Waikoloa/Hawaii>
European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EU PVSEC) <34, 2018, Waikoloa/Hawaii>
Conference Paper
Fraunhofer ISE ()

In this work the first All Copper NICE (New Industrial Solar Cell Encapsulation) modules with solder-freeribbon to finger interconnections are presented. Experiments were conducted to investigate if silver can be fully omitted from solar cells with copper plated fingers in combination with the NICE module technology. We could show that silver flash plating, front and rear silver busbars or pads can be omitted without compromising series resistance or module performance. All Copper NICE modules were manufactured with fillfactors up to 76.8 %.