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Formalising Expert Knowledge for Building Information Models: Automated Identification of Electrical Wiring from 3D Scans

: Krispel, Ulrich; Ullrich, Torsten; Tamke, Martin

Lazarevic, Eva Vanista (Ed.):
Keeping up with technologies to create the cognitive city : Third International Academic Conference on Places and Technologies, Belgrade, Serbia, April 2016
Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2019
ISBN: 978-1-5275-2048-6
ISBN: 1-5275-2048-X
International Academic Conference on Places and Technologies <3, 2016, Belgrade>
European Commission EC
FP7; 600908; DuraArK
Durable Architectural Knowledge
Conference Paper
Fraunhofer Austria ()
Lead Topic: Digitized Work; Lead Topic: Smart City; Research Line: Computer graphics (CG); Research Line: Computer vision (CV); building information models (BIM); point clouds; shape grammars; graphs

New computational methods provide means to deduce semantic information from measurements, such as range scans and photographs of building interiors. In this paper, we showcase a method that allows to estimate elements that are not directly observable – ducts and power lines in walls. For this, we combine explicit information, which is deduced by algorithms from measured data, with implicit information that is publicly available: technical standards that restrict the placement of electrical power lines. We present a complete pipeline from measurements to a hypothesis of these power lines within walls. The approach is structured into the following steps: First, a coarse geometry is extracted from input measurements; i.e., the unstructured point cloud which was acquired by laser scanning is transformed into a simplistic building model. Then, visible endpoints of electrical appliances (e.g. sockets, switches) are detected from photos using machine learning techniques and a pre-trained classifier. Afterwards, positions of installation zones in walls are generated. Finally, a hypothesis of non-visible cable ducts is generated, under the assumption that (i) the real configuration obeys the rules of legal requirements and standards and (ii) the configuration connects all endpoints using a minimal amount of resources, i.e. cable length.