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Investigation of dielectric layers laser ablation mechanism on n-PERT silicon solar cells for (Ni) plating process

Laser impact on surface morphology, composition, electrical properties and metallization quality
: Molto, C.; Lee, J.E.; Nekarda, J.; Arya, V.; Bechu, S.; Bouttemy, M.; Etcheberry, A.; Drahi, E.; Grane, P.P.; Goncalves, A.M.


Solar energy materials and solar cells 202 (2019), Art.110149
ISSN: 0927-0248
Journal Article
Fraunhofer ISE ()

Laser contact opening is a critical step for solar cells manufacturing and needs to be optimized to achieve high efficiencies. In this paper, laser contact opening using a picosecond laser (wavelength 355 nm, pulse duration 10 ps) has been carried out on n-PERT precursors composed of a SiOx/SiOxNy stack on the rear polished side and a SiOxNy layer on the front textured side. By varying peak fluence from 0.130 J/cm2 to 2.159 J/cm2 and spot overlapping, ninety parameters combinations have been tested to open these dielectric layers. Surface morphology characterization, before and after laser ablation, has been realized using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Bulk and surface compositions have also been investigated by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy analysis, respectively. Results have shown the existence of four separated laser impacted areas on the polished side and a related ablation mechanism is suggested. Also, electrical characterization using four probe measurements and calibrated lifetime photoluminescence revealed that electrical properties of the silicon underlying increased when post laser annealing was performed associated with no spot overlapping. Then, nickel electroless deposition has been performed and first characterizations indicate adherence issues and inhomogeneous metallization. Characterization of metallized samples revealed that these observations were closely linked to the non-homogenous surface morphology and composition after laser ablation.