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Effect of nanoporosity on inflammatory cells

: Pujari, S.; Hoess, A.; Shen, J.; Thormann, A.; Heilmann, A.; Tang, L.; Karlosson-Ott, M.

European journal of clinical investigation 44 (2014), Supplement 1, pp.36
ISSN: 0014-2972
ISSN: 0960-135X
ISSN: 1365-2362
European Society for Clinical Investigation (Annual Scientific Meeting) <48, 2014, Utrecht>
Fraunhofer IWM ()

Background: Nanoporous alumina offers many advantages over traditional biomaterials. However, the inflammatory response is poorly characterized [1]. In this study chronic inflammation towards nanoporous alumina, with pore sizes 20and 200 nm, was investigated.
Materials and methods: Murine macrophages, RAW264.7, were cultured on alumina membranes. Cell morphology was analyzed through scanning electron microsopy. Reactive oxygen species(ROS) was quantified by nitrobluetetrazolium assay, to characterize macrophage activation on 1 and 3 days. Alumina membranes were implanted subcutaneously in Balb/c mice and removed2 weeks later. Histology at the implant site was analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin Y (H&E) and Masson trichrome stain.
Results: Macrophages cultured on 20 nm pores conformed to arounded morphology, while cells on 200 nm pores were flattened (Fig 1). ROS generated in macrophages was significantly higher on 200 nm than 20 nm at both 1 and 3 days (Fig 1C). Histological evaluation showed that fibrotic capsule thickness and collagen content was not affected by pore size. Capsule cell density, however, was significantly higher around 200 nm alumina membranes than 20 nm membranes.
Conclusions: The 200 nm pore size membranes exhibited a stronger inflammatory response than 20 nm pores. Phagocyte recruitment to the area of implantation was increased, and macrophage activation was greater, In vitro and in vivo. Nanofeatures on implant surfaces can, therefore, be used to regulate the inflammatory response during acute and chronic inflammation.