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Mining the effector repertoire of the biotrophic fungal pathogen Ustilago hordei during host and non-host infection

: Ökmen, Bilal; Mathow, Daniel; Hof, Alexander; Lahrmann, Urs; Aßmann, Daniela; Doehlemann, Gunther

Fulltext urn:nbn:de:0011-n-5376822 (1.2 MByte PDF)
MD5 Fingerprint: 486fabb94dfaec788e2d9b3f8901838b
Created on: 26.3.2019

Molecular Plant Pathology 19 (2018), No.12, pp.2603-2622
ISSN: 1464-6722
ISSN: 1364-3703
Journal Article, Electronic Publication
Fraunhofer ITEM ()
barley; biotrophy; effector; gene expression; ustilago hordei

The success of plant-pathogenic fungi mostly relies on their arsenal of virulence factors which are expressed and delivered into the host tissue during colonization. The biotrophic fungal pathogen Ustilago hordei causes covered smut disease on both barley and oat. In this study, we combined cytological, genomics and molecular biological methods to achieve a better understanding of the molecular interactions in the U. hordei-barley pathosystem. Microscopic analysis revealed that U. hordei densely colonizes barley leaves on penetration, in particular the vascular system. Transcriptome analysis of U. hordei at different stages of host infection revealed differential expression of the transcript levels of 273 effector gene candidates. Furthermore, U. hordei transcriptionally activates core effector genes which may suppress even non-host early defence responses. Based on expression profiles and novelty of sequences, knockout studies of 14 effector candidates were performed in U. hordei, which resulted in the identification of four virulence factors required for host colonization. Yeast two-hybrid screening identified potential barley targets for two of the effectors. Overall, this study provides a first systematic analysis of the effector repertoire of U. hordei and identifies four effectors (Uvi1-Uvi4) as virulence factors for the infection of barley.