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Pantographic metamaterials: An example of mathematically driven design and of its technological challenges

: dell'Isola, Francesco; Seppecher, Pierre; Alibert, Jean Jaques; Lekszycki, Tomasz; Grygoruk, Roman; Pawlikowski, Marek; Steigmann, David; Giorgio, Ivan; Andreaus, Ugo; Turco, Emilio; Gołaszewski, Maciej; Rizzi, Nicola; Boutin, Claude; Eremeyev, Victor A.; Misra, Anil; Placidi, Luca; Barchiesi, Emilio; Greco, Leopoldo; Cuomo, Massimo; Cazzani, Antonio; Della Corte, Antonio; Battista, Antonio; Scerrato, Daria; Eremeeva, Inna Zurba; Rahali, Yosra; Ganghoffer, Jean-François; Müller, Wolfgang; Ganzosch, Gregor; Spagnuolo, Mario; Pfaff, Aron; Barcz, Katarzyna; Hoschke, Klaus; Neggers, Klaus; Hild, François


Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics 31 (2019), No.4, pp.851-884
ISSN: 0935-1175
ISSN: 1432-0959
Journal Article
Fraunhofer EMI ()
pantographic fabrics; metamaterial; scientific design; higher gradient material

In this paper, we account for the research efforts that have been started, for some among us, already since 2003, and aimed to the design of a class of exotic architectured, optimized (meta) materials. At the first stage of these efforts, as it often happens, the research was based on the results of mathematical investigations. The problem to be solved was stated as follows: determine the material (micro)structure governed by those equations that specify a desired behavior. Addressing this problem has led to the synthesis of second gradient materials. In the second stage, it has been necessary to develop numerical integration schemes and the corresponding codes for solving, in physically relevant cases, the chosen equations. Finally, it has been necessary to physically construct the theoretically synthesized microstructures. This has been possible by means of the recent developments in rapid prototyping technologies, which allow for the fabrication of some complex (micro)structures considered, up to now, to be simply some mathematical dreams. We show here a panorama of the results of our efforts (1) in designing pantographic metamaterials, (2) in exploiting the modern technology of rapid prototyping, and (3) in the mechanical testing of many real prototypes. Among the key findings that have been obtained, there are the following ones: pantographic metamaterials (1) undergo very large deformations while remaining in the elastic regime, (2) are very tough in resisting to damage phenomena, (3) exhibit robust macroscopic mechanical behavior with respect to minor changes in their microstructure and micromechanical properties, (4) have superior strength to weight ratio, (5) have predictable damage behavior, and (6) possess physical properties that are critically dictated by their geometry at the microlevel.