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Detailed investigation of evaporated Perovskite absorbers with high crystal quality on different substrates

: Cojocaru, L.; Wienands, K.; Kim, T. Woong; Uchida, S.; Bett, A.J.; Rafizadeh, S.; Goldschmidt, J.C.; Glunz, S.W.


ACS applied materials & interfaces 10 (2018), No.31, pp.26293-26302
ISSN: 1944-8244
ISSN: 0013-936X
ISSN: 1944-8252
Journal Article
Fraunhofer ISE ()
Photovoltaik; Neuartige Photovoltaik-Technologien; Farbstoff- und Perowskitsolarzellen; Tandemsolarzellen auf kristallinem Silicium

Dual-source vapor-phase deposition enables low-temperature fabrication of high-performance planar structure perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) solar cells (PSCs), applicable in tandem devices or for industrial production with high homogeneity. Herein, we report low-temperature fabrication of high-efficiency PSCs by dual-source vapor-phase deposition and significance of TiO2 surface modification with [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) on cell performance. Co-evaporation of PbI2 and CH3NH3I, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analyses, results in CH3NH3PbI3 layers with a well-crystallized tetragonal phase formed on both TiO2 and TiO2/PCBM electron-transport layers (ETLs). The devices with PCBM interlayer between TiO2 and CH3NH3PbI3 showed remarkably higher performance than those with TiO2 only, which was attributed to enhance charge extraction and reduced recombination at the TiO2/PCBM/CH3NH3PbI3 interface. The devices composed of evaporated CH3NH3PbI3 on top of the TiO2/PCBM and [2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)-9,9′-spirobifluorene] (Spiro-OMeTAD) as hole-transport material demonstrated power conversion efficiencies of 17.1% (reverse scan) and 13.4% (forward scan) with stabilized efficiency of over 16%, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest efficiency reported for evaporated perovskite solar cells using low-temperature fabrication method involving compact TiO2 layer as ETL. Furthermore, we show that this process can be used to deposit a CH3NH3PbI3 layer on top of a textured silicon substrate, which is the first step for preparing perovskite–silicon tandem devices with enhanced antireflection and light-trapping properties.