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Progress in the use of sprayed phosphoric acid as an inexpensive dopant source for industrial solar cells

: Voyer, C.; Biro, D.; Wagner, K.; Benick, J.; Preu, R.; Koriath, J.; Heintze, M.; Wanka, H.N.

Fulltext urn:nbn:de:0011-n-503034 (660 KByte PDF)
MD5 Fingerprint: 23691fc7b943a541d9533e2b5e85a20a
Created on: 12.10.2012

20th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference 2005. Proceedings : Barcelona, 6-10 June 2005
München: WIP-Renewable Energies, 2005
ISBN: 3-936338-19-1
European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference <20, 2005, Barcelona>
Conference Paper, Electronic Publication
Fraunhofer ISE ()

An in-line emitter formation process in which dilute phosphoric acid is sprayed by means of an ultrasonic nozzle on the wafers prior to the high-temperature treatment was developed, investigated and used to fabricate solar cells. The spray solution consisted of 3% w/w phosphoric acid and of a small quantity of two surfactants. The surfactants make it possible that the sprayed liquid, as well as the phosphosilicate glass (PSG) formed in the furnace, completely cover the silicon surface. The PSG became thicker with increasing flow rate of the spray head, whereas sheet resistance (Rsh) first decreased and then increased with increasing PSG thickness. Solar cells were fabricated on 125Ã 125 mm2 mc-Si untextured wafers. Sheet resistance was in the range of 42 to 50 Î/sq with a standard deviation across a wafer of approx. 2.2 Î/sq. The cells yielded efficiencies up to 14.9%.