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New materials for lithium-ion batteries

Neue Elektrodenmaterialien für Lithium-Ionen-Batterien
: Andersen, Hanne

Fulltext (PDF; )

Würzburg, 2014, IX, 156 pp.
Würzburg, Univ., Diss., 2014
URN: urn:nbn:de:bvb:20-opus-101434
Dissertation, Electronic Publication
Fraunhofer ISC ()
Batterie; Lithium-Ionen-Batterie; Batteriematerial

Over the last decades, lithium-ion batteries have grown more important and substituted other energy storage systems. Due to advantages such as high energy density and low self-discharge, the lithium-ion battery has taken its part in the rechargeable energy storage market, and it is now found in most laptops, cameras and mobile phones. With the increasing demands for electrical vehicles and stationary energy storage systems, there is a necessity for improved lithium-ion battery materials.
In this thesis several alternative electrode materials have been examined with a main focus on the electrochemical characterisation. As an alternative to the commercial cathode LiCoO2, the LiMn2O4 cathode has been suggested due to its reduced toxicity, material abundance, reduced costs and increased specific capacity. On the anode side, several Sn-containing anodes have been investigated and steps to overcome the main challenge, the great volume expansion upon cycling, have been taken. In addition, a novel anode material group was synthesised at the University of Marburg and two substances of the lithium chalcogenidometalate networks were successfully characterised.
The cathode material, LiMn2O4, was synthesised via the sol-gel technique and several coating methods such as dip-coating, electrophoretics and infiltration were investigated. The LiMn2O4 material was initially coated on a porous metal foam as a current collector, thus providing new possibilities as the porosity of the substrate increased, mechanical stability and adhesion improved and a 3-dimensional network was obtained. In order to compare the results of the LiMn2O4 cathode material on the novel current collector, the material was also coated on a standard metallic foil and characterised. The analysis followed via X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, thermogravimetrical analysis and several electrochemical techniques.
Tin containing anode materials were chosen due to the doubling of the theoretical capacity compared with the commercially used graphite. However, a great challenge lies with using tin or tin-containing anode materials. Upon lithiation of Sn, the material can expand up to 300 %, therefore a stabilising effect is necessary to avoid a collapse of the material. This work shows several new concepts and attempts to overcome this challenge, including SnO2 nanowires deposited via chemical vapour deposition on both metallic foam and standard current collectors. A new improvement consisted of the tin - carbon nanofibers where the nanofibers form a stabilising matrix that can partially buffer the volume change of the Sn particles. The synthesis of the Sn-containing anodes took place at the University of Cologne, while characterisation, cell preparation and optimising the electrode system were features of this thesis.
In addition, a lithium chalcogenidometalate network proved to be an interesting, new anode material group. Both Li4MnSn2Se7 and Li4MnGe2S7 (synthesised at Philipps-Universität Marburg) were electrochemically examined to better understand the lithiation processes. Both materials obtained very high specific capacities and were found to be possible alternatives to the state-of-the art anodes. All the examined electrode materials were found to have some advantage over the commercially used LiCoO2 and graphite electrodes, and a thorough characterization of the materials was performed to understand the processes that took place.